Alzheimer's Disease Facts & Figures
Approximately 5.8 million people have AD today.
Familial AD (early onset < age 65) affects only 0.2 million people in the U.S., caused by the overexpression of Aβ42.
Sporadic AD (Late onset > age 65) affects 5.6 million people in the U.S.
By 2050, ~14 million people will have Alzheimer's Disease.
There is no cure available, only symptom management.
While mortality for other diseases has fallen, mortality for Alzheimer's disease has increased.
$425 million go into AD research from the National Institute of Health alone.
Biggest hurdle: there is no reliable biomarker for diagnosis.
Hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer’s disease is not normal aging.
It is a fatal disease that slowly destroys the brain and the ability to learn, reason and carry out daily activities.
Two main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease:
Universal Biological Variables: Age, APOE genotype, and Sex
While we do not understand the cause of AD, we know that risk and pathology are driven by 3 universal biological variables:
Age (Old age)
APOE genotype (APOE4)
Age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease.
Progression potentially occurs without symptoms for 20 years before onset.
APOE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease.
60% of the Alzheimer's population has APOE4.
APOE4 is associated with accelerated Aβ42 accumulation.
By the age of 65, AD risk is increased 2-fold in females compared to males.
Sex and APOE
Female APOE4 carriers have a greater lifetime risk for developing AD compared to male APOE4 carriers.
The mechanism behind the interactive effects of sex and APOE4 on AD risk is not understood.